From July 5-8, we participated in the international “Robert Louis Stevenson: New Perspectives” conference at Edinburgh Napier University in Scotland. This four-day conference was fantastic, as we were able to meet and learn from Stevenson scholars from around the world. Our paper focused on chiasmus in Stevenson’s essays and included a 49-page collection of parallelisms and chiasms we have so far identified.
Currently, we are continuing our research and preparing our paper for inclusion in a forthcoming conference edition of the Journal of Stevenson Studies. We are very excited to share our findings with Stevenson scholars and hope our effort will contribute to a better understanding of his essays and a fuller appreciation of his skill as a writer. Our view is that Robert Louis Stevenson belongs in the pantheon of the greatest writers in the English language.
Although he doesn’t use the term “chiasmus,” Stevenson describes his methodology in his essay, “On Some Technical Elements of Style in Literature” (Contemporary Review, April 1885; Essays in the Art of Writing, 1905). Below are a few examples of parallelisms and chiasms from his essays:
1. “An Autumn Effect” (The Porfolio, 1875)
A: For it is rather in nature
B: that we see resemblance to art,
B: than in art
A: to nature;
2. “Talk and Talkers (a Sequel)” (Cornhill Magazine, 1882; Memories and Portraits, 1887)
A: Where youth agrees with age, not where they differ,
B: wisdom lies;
A: and it is when the young disciple finds his heart to beat in tune with his grey-bearded teacher’s
B: that a lesson may be learned.
3. “On Some Technical Elements of Style in Literature” (Contemporary Review, 1885; Essays in the Art of Writing, 1905)
B: and argument live in each other;
B: and it is by the brevity, clearness, charm, or emphasis of the second,
A: that we judge the strength and fitness of the first.
4. “Lay Morals” (1896)
A: Now the problem to the poor
B: is one of necessity;
C: to earn wherewithal to live, they must find remunerative labour.
A: But the problem to the rich
B: is one of honour;
C: having the wherewithal they must find serviceable labour.
A: Each has to earn his daily bread:
B: the one, because he has not yet got it to eat;
B: the other who has already eaten it,
A: because he has not yet earned it.
Over the next few months, we will update and expand upon our 49-page collection of parallelisms and chiasms from Stevenson’s essays. In the meantime, feel free to download a copy for personal review. Perhaps, it will inspire you to study his essays in full!
David O. McKay served as president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from April 1951 until his death in January 1970. Prior to this, he served as a counselor in the First Presidency beginning in 1934 and as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles beginning in 1906. Professionally, David O. McKay was an educator, serving as a teacher and principal at Weber Stake Academy (the forerunner of Weber State University) in Ogden, Utah.
President McKay is remembered for his prophet-esque physical appearance and countenance, the growth and expansion of the Church that occurred during his two-decade tenure, and his teachings: “Every member a missionary” and “No other success can compensate for failure in the home.”
On April 9, 1951, David O. McKay was sustained by the Church’s worldwide membership as president of the Church, replacing President George Albert Smith who had passed away a week earlier. In his inaugural address, President McKay expressed his humility at his new responsibility, dedication to the work of the Lord, and need for the sustaining faith and prayers of Church members.
To aid his expression President McKay paraphrased Abraham Lincoln’s Farewell Address, which was delivered on February 11, 1861 at the Great Western Railroad station in Springfield, Illinois before Lincoln departed for Washington D.C. to assume his duties as President of the United States. Lincoln biographer, Gabor Boritt, considers the Farewell Address Lincoln’s “finest poetry” up to that point in his life and Harriet Beecher Stowe considered it one of Lincoln’s three most beautiful addresses (The Gettysburg Gospel, 92, 159).
Chiasmus and parallelisms are distinctive features in both President McKay’s inaugural address and President Lincoln’s Farewell Address.* This article presents a diagram and detailed analysis of Lincoln’s brief Farewell Address, followed by a diagram and detailed analysis of the relevant paraphrasing passages from McKay’s inaugural address. For an in-depth explanation of our methodology read our article, “Recognizing Parallelisms and Chiasmus in the Scriptures,” under the Methodology tab.
[*Note: Chiasmus is a well-documented feature of Abraham Lincoln’s writings and speeches. For example, the chapter on “Chiasmus” in Farnsworth’s Classical English Rhetoric references Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address (1863), speech at Cooper Institute (1860), debate with Stephen Douglas at Ottawa (1858), letter to A. G. Hodges (1864), and letter to James Hackett (1863).]
Abraham Lincoln’s Farewell Address (1861)
#1: In this parallelism Abraham Lincoln attempts to express his “feeling of sadness” at leaving Springfield, Illinois. David O. McKay also had difficulty expressing his feelings in his inaugural address.
My friends — No one, not in my situation, can appreciate my feeling of sadness at this parting. A: To this place, and the kindness of these people, B: I owe every thing. A: Here B: I have lived a quarter of a century, and have passed from a young to an old man. A: Here B: my children have been born, and one is buried.
A=A: “[T]his place” equals “Here” and “Here,” referring to Springfield, Illinois and the community that had been his neighbors for “a quarter of a century.”
B=B: “[E]very thing” complements “lived a quarter of a century” and “my children have been born, and one is buried.” Abraham Lincoln lived nearly half of his life in Springfield, Illinois. This was long enough to put down deep roots, raise a family, and develop close relations. Following his assassination in 1865, President Lincoln was buried in Springfield’s Oak Ridge Cemetery.
#2: This chiasm expresses a sense of foreboding doom for President Lincoln, but also evidences his courage and patriotism in the face of serious personal danger.
A: I now leave, B: not knowing when, B: or whether ever, A: I may return,
A=A: “[L]eave” contrasts with “return.” In departing from home, Lincoln naturally contemplates his eventual return.
B=B: “[W]hen” complements “ever.” Perhaps a premonition of his assassination, Lincoln does not know if he will ever return to Springfield. With the Civil War weeks away from beginning and several states having already left the Union, an ominous black cloud hung over the nation. President Lincoln would give his life to preserve the Union.
#3: In this parallelism Abraham Lincoln compares his task to preserve the Union with that of George Washington’s task to create or found the Union.
A: with a task B: before me A: greater than that which B: rested upon Washington.
A=A: “[T]ask” compares to “greater than that.” Lincoln considers his “task” as president to be “greater than that” of any previous president.
B=B: “[M]e” compares to “Washington.” Lincoln specifically compares himself to George Washington, “Father of our Country,” General of the Continental Army, and first President of the United States. Instead of founding the nation, Lincoln would be preserving it — a task he considered to be “greater” or more difficult. Later, in his Gettysburg Address, Lincoln would once again draw a comparison to the nation’s founding and call for “a new birth of freedom.”
#4: This parallelism expresses Abraham Lincoln’s humility and complete reliance upon God. David O. McKay paraphrases this passage in his inaugural address.
A: Without the assistance of the Divine Being who ever attended him, B: I cannot succeed. A: With that assistance B: I cannot fail.
A=A: “Without the assistance” contrasts with “With that assistance.” Lincoln refers to the “Divine Being” who oversaw the founding of the nation. His “assistance” was vital for both the founding and the preserving of the nation.
B=B: “I cannot succeed” contrasts with “I cannot fail.” Lincoln declares his complete dependence upon God. This parallelism is closely paraphrased by President McKay.
#5: This chiasm optimistically references God’s omnipresent nature.
A: Trusting in Him B: who can go with me, B: and remain with you B: and be every where for good, A: let us confidently hope that all will yet be well.
A=A: “Trusting” equals “confidently hope.” After declaring his complete dependence upon God for his task of preserving the nation, Lincoln encourages the people of Springfield to optimistically place their trust in God.
B=B: “[G]o with me” complements “remain with you” and “be every where for good.” Lincoln refers to the omnipresent nature of God.
#6: To conclude his Farewell Address, this parallelism expresses his desire that the people of Springfield pray for him as he prays for them.
A: To His care B: commending you, A: as I hope in your prayers B: you will commend me, I bid you an affectionate farewell.
A=A: “His care” complements “your prayers.” Lincoln will be praying for the people of Springfield and hopes they will be praying for him, as well.
B=B: “[C]ommending you” complements “commend me.” Through the power of their prayers, God will watch over both President Lincoln and the people of Springfield.
David O. McKay’s Inaugural Address (1951)
#1: This parallelism echoes the opening of Abraham Lincoln’s Farewell Address where he states, “No one, not in my situation, can appreciate my feeling of sadness at this parting.” Both Lincoln and McKay had difficulty expressing their feelings on these momentous occasions and were humbled by their new responsibilities.
My beloved fellow workers, brethren and sisters A: I wish it were B: within my power of expression C: to let you know D: just what my true feelings are on this momentous occasion. A: I would wish that B: you might look into my heart C: and see there for yourselves D: just what those feelings are.
A=A: “I wish” equals “I would wish.” This parallelism expresses the “wish” of President McKay’s heart.
B=B: “[M]y power of expression” contrasts with “you might look into my heart.” Acknowledging his own lack of expressive abilities, President McKay wishes that his audience (the world-wide membership of the Church) would be able to discern for themselves what is in his heart.
C=C: “[L]et you know” contrasts with “see there for yourselves.” While he can’t communicate effectively, he wishes they could see for themselves. He desires for them to gain their own spiritual witness of his feelings and intentions.
D=D: “[M]y true feelings” equals “those feelings.” President McKay’s sincerity is evident from his desire for complete personal transparency.
#2: This complex chiasm is constructed of a chiasm (CDEEDC) and a parallelism (FGFG) framed by a chiasm (ABBA). The chiastic structure of this passage makes it clear that President McKay is speaking from the perspective of the First Presidency, not just his own.
A: The Lord has said that the three presiding high priests chosen by the body appointed and ordained to this office of presidency B: are to be “upheld by the confidence, faith, and prayer of the Church.”
C: No one can preside over this Church without first being in tune with D: the head of the Church, E: our Lord and Savior, E: Jesus Christ. D: He is our head. C: This is his Church.
F: Without his divine guidance and constant inspiration, G: we cannot succeed. F: With his guidance, with his inspiration, G: we cannot fail.
B: Next to that as a sustaining potent power, comes the confidence, faith, prayers, and united support of the Church. A: I pledge to you that I shall do my best so to live as to merit the companionship of the Holy Spirit, and pray here in your presence that my counselors and I may indeed be “partakers of the divine spirit.”
A=A: “[T]hree presiding high priests” equals “my counselors and I.” President McKay refers to the First Presidency, the highest governing body of the Church, which consists of the President of the Church and his counselors (see D&C 107:22). The new First Presidency, consisting of David O. McKay, Stephen L Richards, and J. Reuben Clark, will do their best to “merit the companionship of the Holy Spirit.”
B=B: “[C]onfidence, faith, and prayer of the Church” equals “confidence, faith, prayers, and united support of the Church.” The First Presidency are sustained by the membership of the Church (see D&C 107:22).
C=C: “[T]his Church” equals “His Church.” The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the Lord’s authorized church (see D&C 1:30).
D=D: “[H]ead of the Church” equals “He is our head.” While the First Presidency is the highest governing body of the Church, Christ is the “head of the Church” and directs its affairs through revelation.
E=E: “Lord and Savior” equals “Jesus Christ.” The same Jesus Christ testified of in the New Testament and to whom the Christian world prays is the head of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
F=F: “Without his divine guidance and constant inspiration” contrasts “With his guidance, with his inspiration.” Paraphrasing Lincoln, President McKay acknowledges the needed “guidance” and “inspiration” that comes from God, who also inspired and guided Washington and Lincoln.
G=G: “[W]e cannot succeed” contrasts with “we cannot fail.” Like Lincoln, President McKay expresses his and his counselors’ complete dependence on God, their need for His “sustaining potent power,” and gives Him the credit for any success that may come during their tenure.
With a professional background as an educator, David O. McKay was a widely and well-read individual. This is apparent from his paraphrasing of Abraham Lincoln to express his feelings at a parallel moment in his life. Although the sense of foreboding doom is absent from President McKay’s inaugural address, he is aware that his calling will only end with his death (which happened of natural causes at age 96). Retirement is not an option. Hence, McKay is also expressing courage and commitment. While McKay’s paraphrasing of Lincoln can be identified and appreciated without a knowledge of chiasmus, recognizing the presence of chiasmus in both addresses provides a more precise and nuanced understanding of their words and how they relate to each other.
In a previous article, we wrote about chiasmus in Russell M. Nelson’s “Becoming True Millennials,” a Worldwide Devotional address for young adults delivered in January 2016. In this article, we discuss chiasmus in “The Sabbath is a Delight,” his April 2015 General Conference address. This was his final General Conference address before becoming President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in July 2015. As such, throughout this article we refer to him as Elder Nelson.
In order to more fully appreciate chiasmus in this address, we need to introduce a new term: “spiral chiasmus.” In Chiasmus and Culture, a volume of scholarly essays published in 2014, Anthony Paul describes four types of chiasmus: cross-shaped, mirroring, circling, and spiral. A spiral chiasm occurs when “the formal symmetry sets up a more dynamic process of movement …, returning to the starting point, with the piquant difference that this starting point is no longer exactly what it was at the start — or where it was.” The value of this type of chiasm is its “capacity to open up thought” and generate “new possibilities” (p. 24, 36). In the same volume, Ivo Strecker describes the potential of spiral chiasmus to “shatter expectations and conventions (and establish new ones)” (p. 87).
In “The Sabbath Is a Delight,” Elder Nelson makes use of two spiral chiasms, one from the New Testament teachings of Christ and one of his own creation to help us assess our individual Sabbath observance. This article presents a detailed treatment of each of these chiasms, followed by a less-detailed analysis of several additional chiasms and parallelisms from his address. For an in-depth explanation of our methodology read our article, “Recognizing Parallelisms and Chiasmus in the Scriptures,” under the Methodology tab.
Diagram and Analysis:
#1: To shatter cultural conventions (and establish new ones) concerning Sabbath observance during his mortal ministry, the Lord declared a memorable spiral chiasm that is recorded in Mark 2:27.
What did the Savior mean when He said that A: “the sabbath was B: made for man, B: and not man A: for the sabbath”?
A=A: “[S]abbath” contrasts with “sabbath.” The key to understanding this chiasm is recognizing that the two sabbaths mentioned are not the same sabbath. The first is made for man, the second is not made for man, but is used to control and limit his actions and to stifle his good works and communion with the Lord. In contrast, a sabbath made for man removes this burden and aides his spiritual and physical development.
B=B: “[M]an” equals “man.” Under the influence of either sabbath, the same man is observed. Under one he is liberated, under the other he is limited. This spiral chiasm invites us to ponder the differences between these two forms of sabbath observance and their effect on man and society. Which is preferred? Which should we work toward? Certainly, a sabbath where man selfishly focuses on himself is no more what the Lord had in mind than a sabbath where man is restricted and burdened. This spiral chiasm opens our minds to new possibilities concerning sabbath observance and encourages us to develop a sabbath observance that truly benefits man.
After referencing this declaration from the Lord, Elder Nelson (in the form of a parallelism) offers his authoritative commentary on the Lord’s meaning.
A: I believe He wanted us to understand that the Sabbath was His gift to us, B: granting real respite from the rigors of daily life C: and an opportunity for spiritual and physical renewal. A: God gave us this special day, B: not for amusement or daily labor but for a rest from duty, C: with physical and spiritual relief.
A=A: “Sabbath was His gift to us” equals “God gave us this special day.” Recognizing that the Sabbath is a gift from God helps us develop an appropriate Sabbath observance. Our priority should be to use it for His purposes and for the furthering of His “work and glory” (see Moses 1:39).
B=B: “[R]eal respite from the rigors of daily life” equals “rest from duty.” Elder Nelson clarifies that the Sabbath is not a day for amusement or labor, but is a day for setting aside our rigorous routines.
C=C: “[S]piritual and physical renewal” equals “physical and spiritual relief.” The rest invited by the Sabbath is intended for both physical and spiritual rejuvenation.
#2: In addition to providing insight into the Lord’s spiral chiasm, Elder Nelson introduces his own spiral chiasm to spur further thought and insight. What is the relationship between “faith” and “love”? How does the Sabbath help us develop “a love for God”? This spiral chiasm introduces a spiral pattern for application that increases our love for and faith in God and His Sabbath day.
A: Faith in God engenders B: a love for the Sabbath; B: faith in the Sabbath engenders A: a love for God.
A=A: “Faith in God” complements “love for God.” Faith in God means we believe in His promised blessings and live accordingly. Love for God develops as we experience His blessings and understand His intentions toward us. Faith in and love for God help us endure His chastening hand, knowing that the challenges we endure are for our benefit; we look for ways to grow in the midst of our challenges. The Sabbath is intended for believers — those who already have a faith in God. It is not intended to govern those who do not have a faith in God. In other words, observing the Sabbath is voluntary rather than compulsory and is intended for a society that recognizes religious freedom. However, choosing to observe the Sabbath will help us develop faith in and love for God, so individuals who are curious about God are invited to observe the Sabbath as part of their effort to understand and come to know Him.
B=B: “[L]ove for the Sabbath” complements “faith in the Sabbath.” Faith in God helps us appreciate or love the day of rest He has provided for us. This appreciation leads us to exercise faith in the promises of the Sabbath. Receiving the blessings of Sabbath observance helps us develop a love for God. This, in turn, helps us develop greater faith in God, a greater love for the Sabbath, and greater faith in the promises of the Sabbath. Viewed this way, the Sabbath becomes a vehicle for developing greater faith in and love for God.
Additional Chiasms and Parallelisms:
#3: The word “prophet,” especially in the title of the hymn “We Thank Thee O God for a Prophet,” usually refers to the president of the Church. However, in this context it refers collectively to all those who participated in General Conference — through music, prayer, and the spoken word.
A: Dear brothers and sisters, these two days of conference have been glorious. B: We have been uplifted by inspiring music and eloquent prayers. B: Our spirits have been edified by messages of light and truth. A: On this Easter Sunday, we again unitedly and sincerely thank God for a prophet!
#4: Although Elder Nelson is the final speaker at this Conference, he invites the congregation to be open to the Spirit during his address in order to receive additional personal revelation.
A: The question for each of us is: because of what I have heard and felt during this conference, B: how will I change? B: Whatever your answer might be, may I invite you also to A: examine your feelings about, and your behavior on, the Sabbath day.
#5: Elder Nelson uses a parallelism to invite the congregation to join him as he explores the meaning of “delight” as a description of the Sabbath (see Isaiah 58:13).
A: I am intrigued by the words of Isaiah, B: who called the Sabbath “a delight.” A: Yet I wonder, B: is the Sabbath really a delight for you and for me?
#6: In this chiasm, Elder Nelson shares his own experience discovering the delights of the Sabbath day. As a medical doctor, it’s no surprise that this came about as a relief from his professional demands.
A: I first found delight in the Sabbath many years ago when, as a busy surgeon, I knew that the Sabbath became a day for personal healing. B: By the end of each week, my hands were sore from repeatedly scrubbing them with soap, water, and a bristle brush. B: I also needed a breather from the burden of a demanding profession. A: Sunday provided much-needed relief.
#7: After detailing the origin and history of the Sabbath, Elder Nelson uses a chiasm to emphasize the modern-day covenant aspect of Sabbath observance.
In Hebrew, the word Sabbath means “rest.” The purpose of the Sabbath dates back to the Creation of the world, when after six days of labor the Lord rested from the work of creation. When He later revealed the Ten Commandments to Moses, God commanded that we “remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.” Later, the Sabbath was observed as a reminder of the deliverance of Israel from their bondage in Egypt. Perhaps most important, the Sabbath was given as a perpetual covenant, a constant reminder that the Lord may sanctify His people. A: In addition, we now partake of the sacrament B: on the Sabbath day C: in remembrance of the Atonement of Jesus Christ. D: Again, we covenant D: that we are willing to take upon us His holy name. C: The Savior identified Himself as B: Lord of the Sabbath. It is His day! Repeatedly, He has asked us to keep the Sabbath or to hallow the Sabbath day. A: We are under covenant to do so.
#8: This chiasm details how Elder Nelson became self-reliant in his efforts to keep the Sabbath day holy. Initially, he followed the “lists of dos and don’ts” created by others, but then developed the ability to discern appropriate behaviors for himself.
A: How do we hallow the Sabbath day? B: In my much younger years, I studied the work of others C: who had compiled lists of things to do and things not to do on the Sabbath. D: It wasn’t until later that I learned from the scriptures that my conduct and my attitude on the Sabbath constituted D: a sign between me and my Heavenly Father. C: With that understanding, I no longer needed lists of dos and don’ts. B: When I had to make a decision whether or not an activity was appropriate for the Sabbath, I simply asked myself, A: “What sign do I want to give to God?” That question made my choices about the Sabbath day crystal clear.
#9: This chiasm emphasizes that the Sabbath is not just an ancient tradition, but a practice that has been renewed in our day for our benefit. Following this chiasm, he details these modern-day benefits by quoting D&C 59:9–10, 13, 15–16, drawing special attention to the promise that the “fulness of the earth” is given “to those who keep the Sabbath day holy.”
A: Though the doctrine pertaining to the Sabbath day B: is of ancient origin, B: it has been renewed in these latter days A: as part of a new covenant with a promise.
#10: After detailing his own experience of becoming self-reliant in keeping the Sabbath day holy, Elder Nelson invites members of the congregation to explore their own Sabbath observance.
A: How can you ensure that your behavior on the Sabbath will lead to joy and rejoicing? B: In addition to your going to church, partaking of the sacrament, and being diligent in your specific call to serve, B: what other activities would help to make the Sabbath a delight for you? A: What sign will you give to the Lord to show your love for Him?
Next, Elder Nelson provides a variety of ideas for members of the congregation to consider in their own efforts to keep the Sabbath day holy. These ideas are presented in a series of chiasms and parallelisms.
#11: Part of God’s intention in giving us the Sabbath is to strengthen eternal family ties.
A: The Sabbath provides a wonderful opportunity B: to strengthen family ties. A: After all, God wants B: each of us, as His children, to return to Him as endowed Saints, sealed in the temple as families, to our ancestors, and to our posterity.
#12: To encourage parents to take advantage of Sabbath opportunities to teach the gospel to their children, Elder Nelson quotes a chiasm found in D&C 68:25 that emphasizes their responsibility to do so.
We make the Sabbath a delight when we teach the gospel to our children. Our responsibility as parents is abundantly clear. The Lord said, A: “Inasmuch as parents have children in Zion … B: that teach them not to understand C: the doctrine of repentance, faith in Christ the Son of the living God, C: and of baptism and the gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of the hands, when eight years old, B: the sin be upon A: the heads of the parents.”
Years ago the First Presidency stressed the importance of quality family time. They wrote: “We call upon parents to devote their best efforts to the teaching and rearing of their children in gospel principles which will keep them close to the Church. The home is the basis of a righteous life, and no other instrumentality can take its place or fulfill its essential functions in carrying forward this God-given responsibility. “We counsel parents and children to give highest priority to family prayer, family home evening, gospel study and instruction, and wholesome family activities. However worthy and appropriate other demands or activities may be, they must not be permitted to displace the divinely-appointed duties that only parents and families can adequately perform.” A: When I ponder this counsel, I almost wish I were a young father once again. B: Now parents have such wonderful resources available to help them make family time more meaningful, on the Sabbath and other days as well. C: They have LDS.org, Mormon.org, the Bible videos, the Mormon Channel, the Media Library, the Friend, the New Era, the Ensign, the Liahona, and more—much more. B: These resources are so very helpful to parents in discharging their sacred duty to teach their children. A: No other work transcends that of righteous, intentional parenting!
#14: A Sabbath activity that can bring “immense joy” is family history work. The following two chiasms describe and illustrate this joy and invite us to experience it for ourselves.
A: In addition to time with family, you can experience true delight on the Sabbath from B: family history work. B: Searching for and finding family members who have preceded you on earth—those who did not have an opportunity to accept the gospel while here— A: can bring immense joy.
A: I have seen this firsthand. Several years ago, my dear wife Wendy determined to learn how to do family history research. B: Her progress at first was slow, but little by little she learned how easy it is to do this sacred work. C: And I have never seen her happier. B: You too need not travel to other countries or even to a family history center. At home, with the aid of a computer or mobile device, you can identify souls who are yearning for their ordinances. A: Make the Sabbath a delight by finding your ancestors and liberating them from spirit prison!
#15: Our Sabbath observance can extend outside our family circles and include rendering service to others, especially the sick and lonely. A: Make the Sabbath a delight B: by rendering service to others, C: especially those who are not feeling well C: or those who are lonely or in need. B: Lifting their spirits A: will lift yours as well.
#16: Self-discipline is required in order for us to not slip into pursuing our “own pleasure” on the Sabbath day (see Isaiah 58:13–14).
A: Not pursuing your “own pleasure” on the Sabbath requires self-discipline. B: You may have to deny yourself of something you might like. C: If you choose to delight yourself in the Lord, B: you will not permit yourself to treat it as any other day. A: Routine and recreational activities can be done some other time.
#17: Drawing a parallel between paying tithing and keeping the Sabbath day holy, Elder Nelson uses a parallelism and a chiasm to help us see that both are ways of showing gratitude to the Lord.
Think of this: A: In paying tithing, B: we return one-tenth of our increase to the Lord. A: In keeping the Sabbath holy, B: we reserve one day in seven as His.
A: So it is our privilege to consecrate B: both money B: and time A: to Him who lends us life each day.
#18: In concluding his address, Elder Nelson uses two chiasms to remind us that keeping the Sabbath day holy is part of being “an example of the believers” (1 Timothy 4:12) and part of the process of becoming “sanctified in Christ” (Moroni 10:32-33).
Now, as this conference comes to a close, we know that A: wherever we live we are to be examples B: of the believers C: among our families, neighbors, and friends. B: True believers A: keep the Sabbath day holy.
I conclude with the farewell plea of Moroni, as he closed the Book of Mormon. He wrote, A: “Come unto Christ, B: and be perfected in him, C: and deny yourselves of all ungodliness; C: and if ye shall deny yourselves of all ungodliness, B: and love God with all your might, mind and strength, A: then … are ye sanctified in Christ.”
In his two addresses that we have diagrammed, a distinct chiastic pattern is emerging. Russell M. Nelson speaks in a series of brief chiasms that mostly go unnoticed during an initial reading. However, each emphasizes a principle or practice of the Gospel that is worthy of study and that greatly enriches a study of his entire talk. The insights available through a chiastic study of this talk can help us to more deliberately keep the Sabbath day holy and realize its promised “delight.”
Jeffrey R. Holland has been a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since June 1994. Prior to this he served in the First Quorum of the Seventy beginning in April 1989.
Professionally, Elder Holland was a religious educator in the Church Educational System. After serving as dean of the College of Religious Education at Brigham Young University and Church commissioner of education, he served as President of Brigham Young University from 1980-89.
Elder Holland is known for his engaging talks, skillful teaching, and tender heart.
Like the other members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Elder Holland has had a Facebook account since 2013 “to provide people a safe and official way to follow the ministry of the Brethren.” Elder Holland occasionally posts experiences and photographs from his world-wide ministry, his thoughts on specific issues, and his witness of Jesus Christ. On February 5, 2017, Elder Holland posted his concern for those “in the midst of a struggle.” Chiasmus in his post emphasizes how challenges are an inescapable part of mortality and that we need to remain strong as disciples of Christ, “come what may.”
Elder Holland is no stranger to chiasmus. In his classic book, Christ and the New Covenant , he diagrams the first day of the Lord’s visit to the Nephites (3 Nephi 11-18) to show its chiastic pattern. Accompanying the diagram, Elder Holland writes: “In reviewing that day, it is impressive to note the cohesive, chiasmic nature of the messages that were delivered. Note the reinforcement and revealed unity of the manner in which this day’s experience began and the way it concluded” (Illustrated hardbound edition , 261).
This article presents a diagram and detailed analysis of Elder Holland’s Facebook chiasm, which features complementary and equivalent pairs. For an in-depth explanation of our methodology read our article, “Recognizing Parallelisms and Chiasmus in the Scriptures,” under the Methodology tab.
Diagram and Analysis:
A: I often think of those of you who are in the midst of a struggle. As much as we want life to be easy and comfortable, as much as I wish it could be that way for you, it simply cannot be. B: We are all, in one way or another, at one point in our lives, going to deal with a moral conundrum or a difficult issue without an easy answer. At that point, we need to ask ourselves, “How much does the gospel of Jesus Christ really mean to me?” How will you act when that call comes? Will you defend Christ and His gospel, come what may? C: John Taylor wrote that he once heard Joseph Smith say to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, “You will have all kinds of trials to pass through. … God will feel after you, and He will take hold of you and wrench your very heart strings, and if you cannot stand it you will not be fit for an inheritance in the Celestial Kingdom of God.” C: The life of Christ was like that. It is not coincidental that the word that is used for Christ’s experience in Gethsemane is that He was in “agony.” If we say we’re disciples of Christ, we will on occasion be in agony. We must walk where He walked. B: When those moments come—contemporary issues, historical complexities, personal problems at home, challenges in a mission or a marriage, wherever it is—I pray and ask and bless you to the end that you will be strong. A: May you follow Christ with every ounce of your being, in good times and in bad.
A=A: “As much as we want life to be easy and comfortable, as much as I wish it could be that way for you, it simply cannot be” equals “good times and in bad.” Life inescapably consists of both good and bad experiences. Knowing this helps us consistently “follow Christ with every ounce of our being,” whether we are “in the midst of struggle” or enjoying a period of ease and comfort.
B=B: “We are all, in one way or another, at one point in our lives, going to deal with a moral conundrum or a difficult issue without an easy answer” equals “When those moments come—contemporary issues, historical complexities, personal problems at home, challenges in a mission or a marriage” and “Will you defend Christ and His gospel, come what may?” equals “I pray and ask and bless you to the end that you will be strong.” The moral conundrums or difficult issues we encounter in life include (but are not limited to) “contemporary issues, historical complexities, personal problems at home, [and] challenges in a mission or a marriage.” In these moments we have the choice as to how we will respond. The “strong” response is to “defend Christ and His gospel, come what may.” The prayers and support of others help us to endure through and benefit from these challenges.
C=C: “Quorum of the Twelve Apostles” equals “disciples of Christ” and “God will feel after you, and He will take hold of you and wrench your very heart strings” equals “we will on occasion be in agony” and “[I]f you cannot stand it you will not be fit for an inheritance in the Celestial Kingdom of God” complements “We must walk where He walked.” While Joseph Smith’s counsel (recorded by John Taylor) was directed to the members of the “Quorum of the Twelve Apostles,” it applies to all “disciples of Christ.” The “agony” that we experience from “all kinds of trials” is by divine design. It is the process of God feeling after us, taking hold of us, and wrenching our “very heart strings.” It is the same process that Jesus Christ, our Great Exemplar, endured through His life. This process is required of us if we are to become “fit for an inheritance in the Celestial Kingdom of God.”
Elder Holland’s Facebook post helps us understand the divine purpose to the challenges of our lives. With the understanding that trials refine and prepare us for life in the presence of God, we are motivated to stay true to the Gospel. Additionally, with the knowledge that we are walking where Jesus walked — that He experienced that same types of trials we experience — the scriptures take on new meaning and added value as guidebooks for enduring as Jesus endured. Chiasmus in this post defines terms and provides a means for better understanding and applying Elder Holland’s encouraging message.
David A. Bednar has been a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since October 2004. Prior to this, he served as “an Area Seventy, Area Authority Seventy, regional representative, twice as a stake president, and as a bishop.”
Professionally, Elder Bednar worked in academia for two and a half decades. Following the completion of his PhD in 1980, he “joined the business faculty at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville.” From 1997-2004 he was president of BYU-Idaho, leading its transition from junior college (Ricks College) to four-year university.
Like the other members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Elder Bednar has had a Facebook account since 2013 “to provide people a safe and official way to follow the ministry of the Brethren.” Elder Bednar regularly posts experiences and photographs from his world-wide ministry, doctrinal mini-sermons, and his testimony of Jesus Christ.
On January 11, 2017, Elder Bednar posted his thoughts on New Year’s resolutions and “the process of turning unto God.” Chiasmus in his post emphasizes the “reality” and “power” of the “Savior’s atoning sacrifice” in our imperfect efforts to “become better.”
This article presents a diagram and detailed analysis of Elder Bednar’s Facebook chiasm, which features complementary and equivalent pairs. For an in-depth explanation of our methodology read our article, “Recognizing Parallelisms and Chiasmus in the Scriptures,” under the Methodology tab.
Diagram and Analysis:
A: While the Lord desires that we strive consistently to become better, He also knows we will make mistakes. B: Thankfully, a loving Savior has provided a way for us to heal from spiritual wounds and illness by turning to and coming unto Him. C: As we begin this new year, let us remember and focus our lives upon new beginnings, or as Elder Neal A. Maxwell described it, “turning away from evil and turning to God.” C: I can think of few gospel principles that are as positive and encouraging as repentance and the process of turning unto God. B: As we learn about and focus our faith in the Redeemer, then we naturally turn toward and come unto Him. A: I testify of the reality and of the power of the Savior’s atoning sacrifice and of the blessings of hope and peace for our souls made available to us because of His great offering.
A=A: “He also knows we will make mistakes” complements “Savior’s atoning sacrifice.” Because the Lord knows we “will make mistakes” in our strivings to “become better,” the “Savior’s atoning sacrifice” brings “hope and peace for our souls.”
B=B: “Savior” equals “Redeemer” and “turning to and coming unto Him” complements “naturally turn toward and come unto Him.” It is the “Savior” and “Redeemer,” Jesus Christ, to whom we need to turn and approach in order to be healed from “spiritual wounds and illness” (see Acts 4:12). By learning about and focusing our faith in Christ, we will “naturally” turn and come unto Him.
C=C: “[T]urning away from evil and turning to God” equals “repentance and the process of turning unto God.” The central focus of this chiasm addresses the beginning of a new year and the appropriateness of focusing “our lives upon new beginnings.” At its very core, improving aspects of our lives is a form of “repentance” and part of the “positive and encouraging” process of “turning unto God.”
Elder Bednar’s Facebook post invites us to include the atonement of Jesus Christ in our New Year’s resolution efforts and helps us focus on “turning away from evil” and “turning unto God.” Chiasmus in his post adds richness to his message by defining terms and providing further insight into how to make the atonement naturally operative in our lives. It also helps us understand that we need not be perfect to enjoy the “hope and peace” the Atonement brings.
Brigham Young served as President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from December 1847 until his death in August 1877. Prior to this, he served as an original member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles beginning in February 1835 (and Quorum president beginning in 1838). He joined the LDS Church in April 1832 after studying the faith for two years.
Professionally, Brigham Young was a carpenter. Before joining the Church he operated his own woodworking shop on his father’s farm in Mendon, New York, where he “supported his family by making and repairing chairs, tables, and cupboards and installing windows, doors, stairways, and fireplace mantels.”
President Young is most well-known for his colonizing efforts in the American West. Under his direction as many as 70,000 Latter-day Saints gathered to the Intermountain West between the years 1847 and 1869, where they established approximately 400 settlements. In honor of his pioneering efforts and leadership, a statue of Brigham Young stands in the National Statuary Hall Collection at the U.S. Capitol in Washington D.C.
In 1861, the Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City were in need of a new tabernacle, since they had outgrown the Old Tabernacle built in 1857. This New Tabernacle would feature “a curved ceiling and a seating capacity of more than 12,000.” Although the New Tabernacle would not be completed and dedicated until October 1875, General Conferences of the Church were held there beginning in October 1867.
“The Thirty-seventh Semi-Annual Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, convened … on Sunday morning, Oct. 6th, at 10 o’clock, in the New Tabernacle, which was ready for Conference to be held in it, the great exertions made for some time past by those having charge of its erection, having been thus far successful…. [A] detailed description of it will be more appropriate when it is finished, and dedicated…. Conference was called to order, and [a] hymn, composed by E. R. Snow for the occasion, was then read by the clerk and sung by the Tabernacle choir…. Prayer was then offered by President B. Young” [emphasis added] (Deseret News, October 9, 1867, 1).
The text of the prayer, recently brought to light and transcribed from Pitman shorthand, suggests that it was a preliminary dedication, or a prayer for divine help in completing the structure and dedicating their efforts toward this end. A similar pattern was followed in the dedication of the Nauvoo Temple, as portions of the building were dedicated and put to use as they were completed, followed by an official dedication. Additionally, the Conference Center was first used for General Conference in April 2000, but not dedicated until October 2000.
A careful study of Brigham Young’s 1867 dedication of the Salt Lake Tabernacle shows it to consist of a series of chiasms and ending with a parallelism. Dividing the text in this way invites us to ponder individual sections in context of his entire prayer. This article presents a diagram and detailed analysis of each of these sections in sequential order. For an in-depth explanation of our methodology read our article, “Recognizing Parallelisms and Chiasmus in the Scriptures,” under the Methodology tab.
[Thanks to LaJean Carruth at the Church History Library for providing a more detailed understanding of the Lost Sermons project.]
Brigham Young’s Opening Remarks
#1: This chiasm, which consists of complementary and equivalent paired phrases, is structured around Brigham Young’s optimism that the organ would be completed in due time despite the audience’s apparent disappointment that it was not ready at the time of the dedication. He uses alternating optimistic and apologetic phrases.
A: It will be a [satisfying] reflection to myself if there is a spirit in the Latter-day Saints of Israel to forward the temple as we have this tabernacle. I wish to make a little apology to the people for the unfinished state of our organ. B: We have commenced one that I think will do credit to the wilderness we inhabit when it is complete. C: There is not over I suppose one third of the pipes now up in cases, and around it we have thrown … [a veil] to cover its nakedness, shall I say. … D: When it is completed, the height of it will be more than once again than E: the height of its present appearance. E: It is now built about fifteen feet tall. D: [It will] be, when completed, in the neighborhood of thirty-five feet in height. C: We have done the best we could with it. B: Brother Ridges has been faithful, and the hands [that have] been assisting him. A: It is in the best order as could be under present circumstances.
A=A: “I wish to make a little apology to the people for the unfinished state of our organ” complements “the best order as could be under present circumstances.” Brigham Young opens with an apology for the “unfinished state of our organ,” but explains that “it is in the best order as could be under present circumstances.” Anyone who has visited the Salt Lake Tabernacle understands the visual prominence of the organ pipes within the hall. Since they are impossible to ignore, it is easy to understand why he would begin by addressing their unfinished state.
B=B: “We have commenced one that I think will do credit” complements “Brother Ridges has been faithful.” To comfort any doubters or those who may be disappointed, President Young mentions the faithfulness of Joseph H. Ridges, designer of the organ, and anticipates an organ that “will do credit” to their wilderness surroundings.” This is an understatement compared to the completed organ that has become world famous and draws tourists from around the world.
C=C: “[O]ne third of the pipes now up” complements “the best we could.” Although the organ pipes are only one-third of the way up, it is still “the best” their limited resources would permit. The Deseret News reported that the organ had “seven hundred mouths” at the time of this first General Conference, but would eventually contain “two thousand.” (Deseret News, October 9, 1867, 1)
D=D: “When it is completed, the height of it will be more than once again” equals “when completed, in the neighborhood of thirty-five feet in height.” To build anticipation and provide encouragement, President Young optimistically describes the eventual 35-foot height of the organ pipes.
E=E: “[P]resent appearance” equals “now built about fifteen feet tall.” The central element of this chiasm accentuates President Young’s apology by describing the “present appearance” of the organ pipes to be “about fifteen feet tall.”
Despite not being complete the organ was used to accompany the choirs which sang at the Conference and impressed those in attendance. The Deseret News, for example, provided this glowing review:
“The new Organ, which was played [by Joseph J. Daynes] with the singing of the Tabernacle choir, will be a magnificent and splendidly toned instrument when fully completed. Of its quality of tone and compass satisfactory evidence was obtained during Conference” (Deseret News, October 9, 1867, 1).
Brigham Young’s Dedicatory Prayer
#2: This chiasm uses both complementary and equivalent paired phrases to describe our relationship to each member of the Godhead. We worship Heavenly Father in the name of Christ and are directed to “all truth and holiness” through the influence of the Holy Ghost.
A: O God our Heavenly Father, who dwells in the heavens, in the name of thy Son Jesus Christ B: we come before thee at this time to worship thee on this occasion. C:We ask for the aid of thy holy spirit to teach us how to pray, what we should ask for, [and] how to ask that we may receive. C: We pray that the Holy Ghost may be given unto us to bring us unto all truth and holiness, to [enlighten] our understanding, to enlarge our views pertaining to [the] heavens and to [the] earth, and all creations of God, to inspire us to faithfulness, B: to [meld us] to a oneness A: so that we may be the disciples of the Lord Jesus Christ.
A=A: “[I]n the name of thy Son Jesus Christ” complements “disciples of the Lord Jesus Christ.” Disciples of Jesus Christ do all things in His name. Through Him they worship Heavenly Father. (see D&C 20:29)
B=B: “[W]orship thee” complements “oneness.” Coming together to worship God is a fundamental way disciples of Christ become united. (see 3 Nephi 27:1)
C=C: “[H]oly spirit … teach us how to pray, what we should ask for, [and] how to ask that we many receive” equals “Holy Ghost … bring us unto all truth and holiness, to [enlighten] our understanding, to enlarge our views pertaining to [the] heavens and to [the] earth, and all creations of God, to inspire us to faithfulness.” The central focus of this chiasm discusses the role of the Holy Ghost, who “teaches us how to pray,” including what to ask for and how to ask, “that we may receive.” Additionally, the Holy Ghost “brings us unto all truth and holiness” by enlightening “our understanding” and enlarging “our views pertaining to … all creations of God.” As a result of becoming familiar with “truth and holiness,” we are inspired “to faithfulness.”
#3: This chiasm uses complementary paired phrases to discuss the importance of dedicating ourselves to God.
A: We pray thee in the name of Jesus to bless this congregation who have assembled within the walls of this house for the first time to worship thee. B: We dedicate ourselves unto thee, each and every one of us. B: We dedicate unto thee this house and all that pertains there unto, A: and pray thee in the name of Jesus Christ to give us the ability to complete the same. After we dedicate it unto the Lord of Hosts, it is then really thine.
A=A: “[P]ray thee in the name of Jesus … within the walls of this house” complements “pray thee in the name of Jesus Christ … ability to complete the same.” The congregation consists mainly of those participating in the construction of the Tabernacle. President Young prays that they may have the “ability to complete” the Tabernacle, a feat they would achieve eight years later in 1875.
B=B: “We dedicate ourselves unto thee” complements “[w]e dedicate unto thee this house.” The central focus of this chiasm is dedication to God — personal dedication as well as dedicating a house of worship. Through dedicated labor, the Latter-day Saints would be prepared to dedicate the completed Tabernacle to God, or to use it for His purposes. Joseph Fielding Smith taught this principle at the dedication of the Ogden Utah Temple in 1972: “May I remind you that when we dedicate a house to the Lord, what we really do is dedicate ourselves to the Lord’s service, with a covenant that we shall use the house in the way he intends that it shall be used.”
The next three chiasms focus on the necessity of leaders in the Church to exhibit wisdom.
#4: This chiasm uses complementary paired phrases to describe the equality that exists between priesthood leaders and priesthood laborers and of the importance of possessing wisdom when serving in leadership callings.
A: We ask thee our Father to bless thy priesthood, B: [to] bless those that have authority in thy church and kingdom. Pour out of thy spirit upon them. C: Give [us] wisdom to speak. Give [us] wisdom to pray. C: Give us wisdom to pray and sing and to do all things that is necessary and becoming to thy saints. B: Bless thy servants that have labored upon this house. We pray thee to inspire their hearts A: give them that constitution and that faith and constant enjoyment in the love of Christ that will assist them [and pay them] for their diligence in their faithful labor.
A=A: “[B]less thy priesthood” complements “give them that constitution and that faith and constant enjoyment in the love of Christ.” Compensation for service in the kingdom of God is faith, joy, and charity.
B=B: “[B]less those that have authority in thy church… . Pour out of thy spirit upon them” complements “[b]less thy servants that have labored upon this house … inspire their hearts.” Any successful endeavor requires effective leadership and dedicated labor; it is a partnership requiring mutual trust and respect. In the case of a religious endeavor, inspiration from the Spirit is also required of both parties so that their endeavor can be pleasing to God. Although they play different roles, leaders and laborers are equal in the work of God.
C=C: “Give [us] wisdom to speak … [and] wisdom to pray” equals “Give us wisdom to pray and sing and to do.” The central focus of this chiasm is an acknowledgement that leaders in the church need the gift of divine wisdom in order to lead the Saints effectively.
#5: This chiasm uses equivalent and complementary paired phrases to emphasize the importance of apostles possessing the gift of wisdom.
A: We ask thee to bless the apostles. B: Give unto them great wisdom B: and understanding A: that they may magnify their holy apostleship before thee.
A=A: “[A]postles” equals “holy apostleship.” Blessings from heaven are required in order to successfully magnify this holy calling. The same is true of any calling in the church.
B=B: “[G]reat wisdom” complements “understanding.” Similar to the previous chiasm, wisdom and understanding are essential to successfully lead in the church.
#6: This chiasm uses equivalent and complementary paired phrases to acknowledge the heavy burdens that bishops carry and of the need for them to possess great wisdom.
A: O Lord, bless all the quorums of thy church. B: Especially bless the bishops. C: We realize our Heavenly Father that their labors are great, C: their tasks onerous. B: They need great wisdom much patience, much forbearance, much wisdom from thee to magnify their high and holy calling in the midst of the people. A: Bless the seventy and high priests, elders, priests, teachers, and deacons.
A=A: “[B]less all the quorums of thy church” equals “Bless the seventy and high priests, elders, priests, teachers, and deacons.” Listed here are the priesthood quorums that then functioned within each stake of the Church. The seventy now function as general or area authorities.
B=B: “[B]less the bishops” complements “They need great wisdom much patience, much forbearance, much wisdom from thee.” Bishops in the Church are blessed with the great spiritual gifts of “much patience, much forbearance, [and] much wisdom.”
C=C: “[T]heir labors are great” equals “their tasks onerous.” The central focus of this chiasm acknowledges the heavy burdens carried by priesthood holders, especially the bishops. Few understand the tremendous burdens bishops carry.
#7: This chiasm uses equivalent and complementary paired phrases to emphasize the importance of the family in the kingdom of God.
A: We pray thee in name of Jesus Christ to bless all the families of thy saints. B: Inspire every heart that we may become one, B: that our labors, our faith, our desires, our hopes, our pursuits in life may be concentrated A: [to the] building up of thy kingdom and [the] establishment of peace and righteousness upon the earth.
A=A: “[A]ll the families of thy saints” complements “thy kingdom.” God’s kingdom consists of faithful families. Indeed, the family is the “fundamental unit of society,” both here and in the eternities.
B=B: “[O]ne” equals “concentrated.” As families are united in Christ, the kingdom will also be united.
#8: The chiasm uses complementary and equivalent paired phrases to show that a proactive attitude is needed to overcome challenges, since it preserves our agency and allows us to grow.
A: We ask thee our Heavenly Father to preserve thy people in these mountains. B: Give us power to multiply and increase, and wilt thou multiply every blessing upon us. C: Wilt thou give wisdom to thy people to know how to sustain and preserve themselves, that they may understand the elements, C: that they may understand and have wisdom and power and disposition to accumulate and gather around us from the elements the necessaries for our consumption. B: Bless the children of the saints that they may live to grow up in righteousness before thee; A: and heal up the sick.
A=A: “[P]reserve thy people” complements “heal up the sick.” In order for the Latter-day Saints to be preserved and flourish in the Intermountain West, sickness would need to be tempered.
B=B: “[M]ultiply and increase” complements “children of the saints.” Sickness was of particular concern regarding children, who represented the future of Latter-day Saint growth and strength.
C=C: “[W]isdom … understand the elements” equals “wisdom … gather around us from the elements.” The central focus of this chiasm expresses a desire to proactively survive as a people, rather than passively seek divine deliverance from the effects of their harsh surroundings. President Young prays for wisdom and an understanding of the elements around them, so they can “sustain and preserve themselves.”
#9: This chiasm uses complementary and equivalent paired phrases to discuss missionary work and the gathering of the Latter-day Saints to Utah.
A: Remember all the subjects of our prayers and bless thy saints in various lands B: and regard in great [mercy] thy servants that are travelling and preaching and laboring C: to do good to bring souls to the knowledge of [the] truth. C: Give them solace … and every blessing they need to perform their duty freely bestow upon them. B: Preserve them and bring them safely to us again. A: Open up the way for the gathering of thy poor saints from distant lands [that they] may [fill] up this land full of faith. Bless those [who have] arrived here. Inspire them to do right, … [to] magnify their calling [and] live their religion, that they may be examples to others.
A=A: “[T]hy saints in various lands” complements “thy poor saints from distant lands.” During this period in Church history, new converts were encouraged to physically gather to the Intermountain West and help build a powerful nucleus that could later sustain a worldwide faith. The invitation to gather was a difficult burden, especially for “thy poor saints from distant lands.” This concern for the difficult realities of gathering led Church leaders to establish the Perpetual Emigrating Funding in 1849, which continued until 1887 and helped “more than 30,000 individuals to travel to Utah.”
B=B: “[T]hy servants that are travelling” complements “bring them safely to us again.” At an early date in Church history, missionaries began traveling internationally to share the message of the Restored Gospel. They would also assist new converts in gathering to the Intermountain West, often serving as leaders of emigrating groups on their journeys home. Then, as now, there was a constant concern and prayer for their safety.
C=C: “”[T]o bring souls to the knowledge of the truth” equals “their duty.” The central focus of this chiasm emphasizes the duties of missionaries and prays for the spiritual gifts that would enable success.
#10: This chiasm uses complementary and equivalent paired phrases to emphasize the unique role the Salt Lake Tabernacle would play in inviting the Spirit into people’s lives through music. Significantly, this chiasm foreshadows the international ministry of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir, which provides spiritual uplift through music to the nations of the earth.
A: We ask thee to bless our families, our wives and children, our houses and barns and flocks and herds. B: Bless and pour out of thy spirit upon the good, honest, upright [and] faithful [among] all nations of the earth. C: Bless them, and forgive us for our sins for Jesus’ sake. D: Wilt thou inspire us. E: Bless those that sing. E: Bless him that plays the organ and all that assist in singing, D: our brethren [and sisters who] come from distant [lands]. Inspire them to seek [the] power of thy holy spirit C: and help each one of us so to conduct ourselves B: so that we may be inspired from on high and have the gift of revelation, A: that we may speak thereby, pray thereby, sing thereby, [and] hear thereby, that we may be perfected.
A=A: “[B]less our families” complements “that we may be perfected.” The ultimate aim of God’s blessings upon us is our eventual perfection as families. Music is a powerful tool for strengthening families in righteousness. As the First Presidency advised in their Preface to the 1985 edition of the LDS Hymn Book, “Music has boundless powers for moving families toward greater spirituality and devotion to the gospel. Latter-day Saints should fill their homes with the sound of worthy music.”
B=B: “[P]our out of thy spirit” equals “inspired from on high.” Both the honest in heart among “all nations” and the Latter-day Saints need revelation from heaven. Sacred music originating in the Salt Lake Tabernacle would play a distinctive role in God pouring out His spirit upon all nations. This is particularly manifested by the Church’s semi-annual General Conferences (which were broadcast from the Tabernacle until 2000) and the Mormon Tabernacle Choir’s weekly broadcast, Music & the Spoken Word. Additionally, an imprint of the Tabernacle organ pipes and casing is featured on the cover of the LDS Hymn Book, which is the basic standard for music in the Church.
C=C: “[F]orgive us of our sins” complements “help each one of us to so conduct ourselves.” Forgiveness is only forthcoming when we put forth the effort to overcome sin. We need divine help to “conduct ourselves” faithfully. Sacred music can help us overcome temptation and develop the desire to repent of sin.
D=D: “[I]nspire us” complements “Inspire them.” Both the Latter-day Saints who had already gathered and the Latter-day Saints in “distant lands” needed divine inspiration and the “power of the Holy spirit.” Throughout the gathering period, music played an important role in lifting the spirits of the Saints and unifying their efforts. As the Lord revealed to Brigham Young twenty years earlier when organizing the Saints for their westward journey, “If thou art merry, praise the Lord with singing, with music, with dancing, and with a prayer of praise and thanksgiving.” (D&C 136:28)
E=E: “[T]hose that sing” complements “all that assist in singing.” The central focus of this chiasm is the powerful influence of music in promoting righteousness and spirituality. The ability to compose and perform such uplifting music is a gift of the Spirit. As evidenced by the organ pipes then under construction, music would be a distinctive feature of the Salt Lake Tabernacle.
#11: This parallelism uses complementary and comparative paired phrases to show that completing the Salt Lake Temple was never very far from their minds.
A: We ask thee to bless us with all these blessings, B: for we feel to dedicate [unto] thee this building C: and pray thee to preserve us to finish the same, D: that we may dedicate it and thy people to thee. A: Bless our labors B: [in] building [the] temple, C: that we may have power to accomplish further work, D: that we may receive our further blessings in the holy priesthood. We ask this in the name of Jesus Christ, … amen.
A=A: “[B]less us” complements “[b]less our labors.” In concluding his prayer, President Young again seeks the blessings of the Lord, both to complete the Tabernacle and to receive the blessings that will enable them to use the building according to His purposes.
B=B: “[D]edicate [unto] thee this building” compares with “building [the] temple.” In addition to completing the Tabernacle, President Young also sought for power to complete the construction of the neighboring Salt Lake Temple. The Latter-day Saints love both the Tabernacle and the Temple and dedicate both to God’s purposes.
C=C: “[P]reserve us to finish the same” complements “power to accomplish further work.” While completing the Tabernacle is the immediate focus of this prayer, the desire to finish the neighboring temple is never far from his mind. Receiving the blessings of the temple would endow them with “power to accomplish further work.”
D=D: “[D]edicate it and thy people to thee” complements “that we may receive our further blessings.” Both the Tabernacle and the Temple would be buildings dedicated to God, but the Temple would enable them to “receive our further blessings in the holy priesthood.”
The existence of chiasmus in Brigham Young’s 1867 dedication of the Salt Lake Tabernacle suggests that the original Pitman shorthand record of the prayer and subsequent transcription is accurate to President Young’s original words, since imposing a chiastic structure while recording his words in real-time is highly unlikely and practically impossible.
Brigham Young’s use of chiasmus divides his prayer into mini-sermons, with each focusing on a different aspect of the Tabernacle and the needs of the Church at that time. A major theme is the need for wisdom throughout the membership of the Church, so they can be united and successful in their efforts. Additional themes are the international gathering of the Saints to the Intermountain West and their prosperity in a new and challenging land, their desires to complete the Tabernacle and the Temple, and the eventually international ministry of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir. Brigham Young’s dedicatory prayer demonstrates that chiasmus is an effective literary device for discussing multiple topics in an organized way in one text.
D. Todd Christofferson has been a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since April 2008. Prior to this, he served in the Presidency of the Seventy beginning in August 1998 and as a member of the First Quorum of the Seventy beginning in 1993. He has also served as a regional representative, stake president, and bishop.
Professionally, Elder Christofferson worked as an attorney on the East Coast of the United States, including working as a law clerk for Judge John J. Sirica during the Watergate trials. He also served in the United States Army.
Like the other members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Elder Christofferson has had a Facebook account since 2013 “to provide people a safe and official way to follow the ministry of the Brethren.” Elder Christofferson regularly posts his testimony of various Gospel principles and inspirational experiences from his life and ministry.
Elder Christofferson’s Facebook posts are frequently written using a chiastic structure, as evidenced by his posts on 20 September, 29 November, and 8 December 2016. This article presents a diagram and detailed analysis of each of these chiasms.
A: Yesterday I was blessed to speak about the Book of Mormon at the Library of Congress and to offer a prayer at the United States Senate. B: I am grateful for the opportunity I had to share my faith in Jesus Christ and testimony of the eternal truths contained in the Book of Mormon. C: Since its publication in 1830, the Book of Mormon has garnered much attention. Most recently the Book of Mormon has been added to the list of “Books That Shaped America” and listed fourth on the Library of Congress’s “America Reads” list of most influential books in American history. The Book of Mormon stresses the importance of faith, repentance, baptism, and the guidance of the Holy Ghost in our lives. D: I testified to those in attendance at the Library of Congress that the Book of Mormon was literally translated by Joseph Smith from ancient golden plates through the gift and power of God. D: For Latter-day Saints, the translation of the Book of Mormon was a miracle. C: What began with 5,000 copies in a small print shop in Palmyra, New York, in 1830 has resulted in millions of copies available in multiple languages around the globe. Beyond its impact on American literature and culture, for Latter-day Saints the Book of Mormon remains “the keystone of our religion.” It brings peace and comfort, counsel and guidance, inspiration and encouragement to over 15 million members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints worldwide. B: My own witness of Jesus Christ is rooted in both the Book of Mormon and the Bible. It is in an ongoing study of the Book of Mormon that my knowledge and understanding of the Savior continues to expand and deepen. A: I invite all of us to ponder the significance of the Book of Mormon and discover or rediscover its teachings.
A=A: “I was blessed to speak about the Book of Mormon at the Library of Congress” equals “I invite all of us to ponder the significance of the Book of Mormon and discover or rediscover its teachings.” Elder Christofferson’s visit to Washington D.C. included both his speech about the Book of Mormon at the Library of Congress and his prayer at the United States Senate. This chiasm, however, focuses on his speech at the Library of Congress. Elder Christofferson’s message was not limited to those in attendance at the Library of Congress. Rather his invitation to “ponder the significance of the Book of Mormon” was addressed to “all.”
B=B: “[M]y faith in Jesus Christ and testimony of the eternal truths contained in the Book of Mormon” complements “My own witness of Jesus Christ is rooted in both the Book of Mormon and the Bible.” Elder Christofferson’s speech at the Library of Congress gave him the opportunity to share his “witness of Jesus Christ” and testimony of the Book of Mormon. These two are related, since it is from the Book of Mormon (and Bible) that his witness of Jesus Christ has grown.
C=C: “Since its publication in 1830, the Book of Mormon has garnered much attention” complements “What began with 5,000 copies in a small print shop in Palmyra, New York, in 1830 has resulted in millions of copies available in multiple languages around the globe” and “The Book of Mormon stresses the importance of faith, repentance, baptism, and the guidance of the Holy Ghost in our lives” complements “It brings peace and comfort, counsel and guidance, inspiration and encouragement to over 15 million members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints worldwide.” Accentuating the positive, Elder Christofferson focuses on the growing acceptance of the Book of Mormon in American society and of its “keystone” role in the LDS Church. In addition to its literary and cultural influence, the Book of Mormon provides an active, spiritual influence in the lives of Latter-day Saints around the world.
D=D: “[T]he Book of Mormon was literally translated by Joseph Smith from ancient golden plates through the gift and power of God” complements “the translation of the Book of Mormon was a miracle.” The central focus of this chiasm, and indeed a major theme of his full speech, is that the translation of the Book of Mormon is a modern-day “miracle,” evidence that the “power of God” is active in the world today.
29 November 2016
A: For years, those in the Africa Southeast Area have had only one operating temple that they could visit to participate in saving ordinances for themselves and on behalf of their deceased ancestors—the Johannesburg South Africa Temple. B: During my recent visit to Africa, I was able to witness the anticipatory joy many in the area are feeling for the three additional temples in the area that are either under construction or have been announced in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zimbabwe, and Durban, South Africa. C: Members in this area have always faced many challenges to get to the temple. Travel is expensive—so are passports and visas. C: Many members of the Church have been blessed by donations to the temple patron fund to help them get to the temple for the first time, but regular attendance has been extremely difficult. B: With the expansion of announced temples in the area, the increased desire among members to enter into sacred covenants is palpable. Likewise, the number of those who are doing family history work so they can extend temple blessings to their ancestors is also ramping up. It is very clear to me that the people of Africa are spiritually inclined. They believe in God, and they naturally look to Him for help. Their desire to attend and serve in the temple is an inspiration to me. A: I pray that we all will make it a goal to attend the temple as regularly as our circumstances allow. It is thanks to the covenants that we make in the temple that we are able to have the faith necessary to persevere and to do all things that are expedient in the Lord.
A=A: “For years, those in the Africa Southeast Area have had only one operating temple that they could visit to participate in saving ordinances” complements “make it a goal to attend the temple as regularly as our circumstances allow.” The limited availability of the temple in the Africa Southeast Area is a reminder for “all” Church members to place a high priority on attending the temple “as regularly as our circumstances allow.”
B=B: “During my recent visit to Africa, I was able to witness the anticipatory joy many in the area are feeling for the three additional temples in the area that are either under construction or have been announced” equals “With the expansion of announced temples in the area, the increased desire among members to enter into sacred covenants is palpable.” The announcement and construction of a new temple is always exciting for faithful Latter-day Saints, but especially so in areas where accessibility to a temple is limited.
C=C: “[M]any challenges to get to the temple” equals “regular attendance has been extremely difficult.” The central focus of this chiasm emphasizes the real challenges that Church members in Southeast Africa face in their efforts to attend the temple. Travel expenses are such that many members must rely on “donations to the temple patron fund to help them get to the temple for the first time.” This emphasis on the challenges they face in their efforts to attend the temple helps those of us who live closer to a temple understand the excitement the African Saints feel at the construction of three temples closer and more accessible to their homes.
20 September 2016
A: It was a great blessing to be able to participate in the Philadelphia Pennsylvania Temple dedication with President Henry B Eyring last weekend. B: It is significant to have this temple located in the city so central to the birth of the United States of America. C: Here the Declaration of Independence was debated and adopted and has inspired the hearts of mankind ever since with “self-evident” truths that are fundamental to the plan of salvation—“that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.” C: Here the Constitution of the United States was drafted. Of that great document the Lord declared, “I have suffered [it] to be established, and [it] should be maintained for the rights and protection of all flesh, according to just and holy principles. … And for this purpose have I established the Constitution of this land, by the hands of wise men whom I raised up unto this very purpose.” B: What happened in the United States from 1776 forward was vital to the opening of the last dispensation and reestablishment of the Church of Jesus Christ on the earth. The nation that began here has been the host of the kingdom of God on the earth, and as the Prophet Joseph Smith prayed, so we pray, “May the kingdom of God go forth, that the kingdom of heaven may come.” A: Now, in a sense, the circle is complete as a crowning element of the latter-day work, a holy temple, is dedicated in the birth city of the United States, the city named for brotherly love.
A=A: “Philadelphia Pennsylvania Temple dedication” equals “a holy temple, is dedicated in the birth city of the United States, the city named for brotherly love.” Each temple dedication is a special and momentous occasion, but the construction of a temple in the “birth city of the United States” is especially significant.
B=B: “[C]entral to the birth of the United States of America” complements “vital to the opening of the last dispensation and reestablishment of the Church of Jesus Christ on the earth.” The construction of a temple in Philadelphia is significant because the “birth of the United States of America” that happened here enabled the “opening of the last dispensation and reestablishment of the Church of Jesus Christ on the earth.”
C=C: “Here the Declaration of Independence was debated and adopted” complements “Here the Constitution of the United States was drafted” and “‘self-evident’ truths that are fundamental to the plan of salvation” complements “maintained for the rights and protection of all flesh, according to just and holy principles.” Specifically, our founding documents — the Declaration of Independence and Constitution — proclaim “‘self-evident’ truths that are fundamental to the plan of salvation” and protect our “unalienable Rights” according to “just and holy principles.” Freedom of religion, guaranteed in the 1st Amendment to the Constitution, provided an environment where the restored church could be organized, despite persecution from individuals and groups.
Elder Christofferson’s use of chiasmus in these three examples from his Facebook page transform his social media posts into mini-sermons that invite introspection and application. His first chiasm invites us to read the Book of Mormon. His second chiasm invites us to prioritize temple attendance. His third chiasm invites us to recognize the significance of a Latter-day Saint temple in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As with our other articles on chiasmus in the social media posts of the apostles, Elder Christofferson’s Facebook posts are a reminder for us to ponder the words of the prophets even though they may appear in ordinary places.