To All the Kings of the World: Chiasmus in the 1845 Proclamation of the Twelve Apostles

Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1845 (

On January 19, 1841, Joseph Smith received a revelation from the Lord commanding him to “make a solemn proclamation of my gospel … to all the kings of the world” (see D&C 124:1-14). Before he could fulfill this commandment, the Prophet Joseph suffered martyrdom in June 1844. Nine months later, on April 6, 1845, the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles—the highest governing body in the Church at the time—published a proclamation addressed:

“To all the Kings of the World;
To the President of the United States of America;
To the Governors of the several States;
And to the Rulers and People of all Nations”.

The proclamation of 1845 is considered “one of the great prophetic utterances of the last dispensation” and “covers some of the preparations that are expected to be made throughout the world as a preface to the Second Coming of the Lord Jesus Christ to reign on the earth.” A major purpose of the proclamation is to present a bold call-to-action to the kings of the earth to assist the Latter-day Saints with their divine mission. Particularly striking is the clear timeline it presents, “outlining as it does future developments of the Kingdom of God in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres,” including a detailed description of the Battle of Armageddon and the glorious destiny of the indigenous peoples of North and South America (James R. Clark, Messages of the First Presidency, 1:252).

Parley P. Pratt (

Authorship of the proclamation is attributed to Parley P. Pratt, a prolific writer and member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles from 1835 to 1857. A list of “Church Publications for the Period [1845]” cites Parley P. Pratt as author and Wilford Woodruff as publisher of the proclamation (see Doctrinal History of the Church 7:558). Additionally, a letter from Brigham Young to Parley P. Pratt dated May 26, 1845 states, “We have today in relation to your proclamation that we approve of it….”

The 1845 proclamation later influenced Ezra Taft Benson to issue his own proclamation, “A Message to the World,” at the October 1975 General Conference of the Church. (For a discussion of chiasmus in the 1975 proclamation, see “Nations Cannot Endure In Sin: Chiasmus in Ezra Taft Benson’s ‘A Message to the World.’”)

Both the commandment to “make a solemn proclamation” and the 1845 proclamation are chiastic. This article presents a diagram and detailed analysis of D&C 124:1-14, followed by a less detailed analysis of several chiasms and parallelisms from the 1845 proclamation.

[Note: Thanks to Ron Read at the Church History Library for directing us to sources that clarified authorship of the 1845 proclamation.]

D&C 124:1-14

This revelation directs Joseph Smith to “make a solemn proclamation of my gospel … to all the nations of the earth scattered abroad” and provides instructions for what to include in the proclamation. Chiasmus in this revelation reinforces and clarifies the purpose and content of the proclamation and how it would be received by the nations of the earth. A study of this revelation helps in understanding the content and tone of the 1845 proclamation.

A: [1] Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant Joseph Smith, I am well pleased with your offering and acknowledgments, which you have made; for unto this end have I raised you up, that I might show forth my wisdom through the weak things of the earth. [2] Your prayers are acceptable before me; and in answer to them I say unto you, that you are now called immediately to make a solemn proclamation of my gospel, and of this stake which I have planted to be a cornerstone of Zion, which shall be polished with the refinement which is after the similitude of a palace.
B: [3] This proclamation shall be made to all the kings of the world, to the four corners thereof, to the honorable president-elect, and the high-minded governors of the nation in which you live, and to all the nations of the earth scattered abroad. [4] Let it be written in the spirit of meekness and by the power of the Holy Ghost, which shall be in you at the time of the writing of the same; [5] For it shall be given you by the Holy Ghost to know my will concerning those kings and authorities, even what shall befall them in a time to come.
C: [6] For, behold, I am about to call upon them to give heed to the light and glory of Zion, for the set time has come to favor her.
D: [7] Call ye, therefore, upon them with loud proclamation, and with your testimony, fearing them not, for they are as grass, and all their glory as the flower thereof which soon falleth,
E: that they may be left also without excuse [8] And that I may visit them in the day of visitation, when I shall unveil the face of my covering,
E: to appoint the portion of the oppressor among hypocrites, where there is gnashing of teeth, if they reject
D: my servants and my testimony which I have revealed unto them.
C: [9] And again, I will visit and soften their hearts, many of them for your good, that ye may find grace in their eyes, that they may come to the light of truth, and the Gentiles to the exaltation or lifting up of Zion. [10] For the day of my visitation cometh speedily, in an hour when ye think not of; and where shall be the safety of my people, and refuge for those who shall be left of them?
B: [11] Awake, O kings of the earth! Come ye, O, come ye, with your gold and your silver, to the help of my people, to the house of the daughters of Zion.
A: [12] And again, verily I say unto you, let my servant Robert B. Thompson help you to write this proclamation, for I am well pleased with him, and that he should be with you; [13] Let him, therefore, hearken to your counsel, and I will bless him with a multiplicity of blessings; let him be faithful and true in all things from henceforth, and he shall be great in mine eyes; [14] But let him remember that his stewardship will I require at his hands.

A=A: “[M]y servant Joseph Smith, I am well pleased with your offering … you are now called immediately to make a solemn proclamation of my gospel” is complemented by “let my servant Robert B. Thompson help you to write this proclamation, for I am well pleased with him.” The Lord is “well pleased” with both Joseph Smith and Robert B. Thompson. Thompson, who had joined the Church in Canada in 1836 and moved with the Saints from Ohio to Missouri to Illinois, was Joseph Smith’s personal scribe at the time this revelation was given. Unfortunately, he died of a “severe lung infection” a few months after this revelation was received in August 1841. This element of the chiasm shows the value of having a faithful scribe to assist with sacred writings. In addition to approaching the assignment with the proper spirit, a faithful scribe can make inspired grammatical and structural suggestions. In light of this, it would be interesting to know if Parley P. Pratt used a scribe in writing the 1845 proclamation.

B=B: “[K]ings of the world” equals “kings of the earth.” Addressed to the “nations of the earth,” the proclamation would invite government leaders to financially assist the Saints in fulfilling their divine commission. In doing so, the proclamation would prophetically describe the Lord’s will “concerning those kings and authorities, even what shall befall them in a time to come.”

C=C: “I am about to call upon them to give heed to the light and glory of Zion” corresponds to “that they may come to the light of truth, and the Gentiles to the exaltation or lifting up of Zion.” In calling upon world leaders “to give heed to the light and glory of Zion,” the Lord would “visit and soften their hearts, many of them for your good, that ye may find grace in their eyes.” As a result, Zion would be “exalt[ed]” and “lift[ed] up” and serve as a “refuge” in preparation for the Second Coming of the Lord.

D=D: “[Y]our testimony” corresponds to “my servants and my testimony which I have revealed unto them.” The testimony contained in the proclamation would be that which the Lord would reveal to “his servants” the Twelve Apostles. In writing and disseminating the proclamation, the apostles should be “loud” and “fear[less],” drawing the attention of the nations of the world to their testimony and message and not being concerned with whatever hostile response might follow, “for they are as grass, and all their glory as the flower thereof which soon falleth.” The nations of the earth enjoy a temporary glory, the decline and ending of which is foreknown by God.

E=E: “[V]isit them in the day of visitation” is complemented by “to appoint the portion of the oppressor among hypocrites, where there is gnashing of teeth.” The proclamation would be boldly written and disseminated throughout the world to make the leaders of nations accountable for their actions in relation to the Saints. At the time of the Lord’s Second Coming, they would be left “without excuse” if they “reject” the apostles and their message. As a result of their deceptive lip service, they would be “appoint[ed] the portion of the oppressor among hypocrites, where there is gnashing of teeth.”

1845 Proclamation of the Twelve Apostles

#1: This chiasm clearly defines the “kingdom of God” that has been “prayed for in all ages” and announces its establishment “in these last days.” It also explains how the Lord, through “open visions” and “the great and eternal High Priesthood,” speaks “from the heavens” and “communes with man upon the earth.”

A: Know ye:—That the kingdom of God has come: as has been predicted by ancient prophets, and prayed for in all ages; even that kingdom which shall fill the whole earth, and shall stand for ever.
B: The great Eloheem [sic] Jehovah has been pleased once more to speak from the heavens; and also to commune with man upon the earth,
C: by means of open visions, and by the ministration of HOLY MESSENGERS.
C: By this means
B:the great and eternal High Priesthood, after the Order of his Son, even the Apostleship, has been restored; or, returned to the earth.
A: This High Priesthood, or Apostleship, holds the keys of the kingdom of God, and power to bind on earth that which shall be bound in heaven; and to loose on earth that which shall be loosed in heaven. And, in fine, to do, and to administer in all things pertaining to the ordinances, organization, government and direction of the kingdom of God. Being established in these last days for the restoration of all things spoken by the prophets since the world began; and in order to prepare the way for the coming of the Son of Man.

#2: This chiasm describes the preparation needed for the Second Coming of Christ, which is “near at hand.” This preparation centers around the first principles and ordinances of the Gospel—faith in Jesus Christ, repentance, baptism, and the gift of the Holy Ghost. The central focus of this chiasm is a description of the blessings that come as a result of having the gift of the Holy Ghost.

A: And we now bear witness that his coming is near at hand; and not many years hence, the nations and their kings shall see him coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.
B: In order to meet this great event there must needs be a preparation.
C: Therefore we send unto you with authority from on high, and command you all to repent and humble yourselves as little children, before the majesty of the Holy One ; and come unto Jesus with a broken heart and a contrite spirit, and be baptized in his name, for the remission of sins (that is, be buried in the water in the likeness of his burial and rise again to newness of life, in the likeness of his resurrection), and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit, through the laying on of the hands of the Apostles and elders, of this great and last dispensation of mercy to man.
D: This Spirit shall bear witness to you, of the truth of our testimony;  and shall enlighten your minds, and be in you as the spirit of prophecy and revelation. It shall bring things past to your understanding and remembrance; and shall show you things to come.
D: It shall also impart unto you many great and glorious gifts; such as the gift of healing the sick, and of being healed, by the laying on of hands in the name of Jesus; and of expelling Demons; and even of seeing visions, and conversing with Angels and spirits from the unseen world.
C: By the light of this Spirit, received through the ministration of the ordinances—by the power and authority of the Holy Apostleship and Priesthood, you will be enabled to understand, and to be the children of light;
B: and thus be prepared to escape all the things that are coming on the earth,
A: and so stand before the Son of Man.

#3: This parallelism describes the Lord’s twin capitals that are to be built on the earth—Jerusalem on the eastern hemisphere and the New Jerusalem on the western hemisphere.

A: And we further testify that the Lord has appointed a holy city and temple to be built on this continent for the endowment and ordinances pertaining to the priesthood; and for the Gentiles, and the remnant of Israel to resort unto,
B: in order to worship the Lord; and to be taught in his ways and walk in his paths:
C: in short, to finish their preparations for the coming of the Lord.
A: And we further testify, that the Jews among all nations are hereby commanded, in the name of the Messiah, to prepare, to return to Jerusalem in Palestine; and to rebuild that city and temple unto the Lord:
B: And also to organize and establish their own political government, under their own rulers, judges, and governors in that country.
C: For be it known unto them that we now hold the keys of the priesthood and kingdom which is soon to be restored unto them. Therefore let them also repent and prepare to obey the ordinances of God.

#4: This chiasm describes additional requirements placed upon the “kings, rulers, and people of the Gentiles.” They are to use their temporal riches and resources in furthering the work of the Lord, to lighten the load carried by the Latter-day Saints.

A: And now, O ye kings, rulers, and people of the Gentiles: hear ye the word of the Lord; for this commandment is for you. You are not only required to repent and obey the gospel in its fulness, and thus become members or citizens of the kingdom of God,
B: but you are also hereby commanded, in the name of Jesus Christ, to put your silver and your gold, your ships and steam-vessels, your railroad trains and your horses, chariots, camels, mules, and litters, into active use, for the fulfilment of these purposes. For be it known unto you, that the only salvation which remains for the Gentiles, is for them to be identified in the same covenant, and to worship at the same altar with Israel. In short, they must come to the same standard. For, there shall be one Lord, and his name one, and He shall be king over all the earth.
C: The Latter-day Saints, since their first organization in the year 1830, have been a poor, persecuted, abused, and afflicted people. They have sacrificed their time and property freely, for the sake of laying the foundation of the kingdom of God, and enlarging its dominion, by the ministry of the gospel. They have suffered privation, hunger, imprisonment, and the loss of houses, lands, home, and political rights, for their testimony.
C: And this is not all ; but their first founder, Mr. Joseph Smith, whom God raised up as a Prophet and Apostle, mighty in word and in deed, and his brother Hiram, who was also a prophet, together with many others, have suffered a cruel martyrdom in the cause of truth; and have sealed their testimony with their blood. And still the work has, as it were, but just begun.
B: A great, a glorious, and a mighty work is yet to be achieved, in spreading the truth and kingdom among the Gentiles—in restoring, organizing, instructing and establishing the Jews—in gathering, instructing, relieving, civilizing, educating and administering salvation to the remnant of Israel on this continent; in building Jerusalem in Palestine; and the cities, stakes, temples, and sanctuaries of Zion in America; and in gathering the Gentiles into the same covenant and organization—instructing them in all things for their sanctification and preparation; that the whole Church of the Saints, both Gentile, Jew and Israel, may be prepared as a bride, for the coming of the Lord.
A: And now, O ye kings, rulers, presidents, governors, judges, legislators, nobles, lords, and rich men of the earth; will you leave us, to struggle alone, and to toil unaided in so great a work? Or will you share in the labors, toils, sacrifices, honors and blessings of the same?

#5: This chiasm proclaims that the latter day effort to “usher in the great millennium” is “the greatest of all revolutions.”

A: Have you not the same interest in it that we have? Is it not sent forth to renovate the world—to enlighten the nations—to cover the earth with light, knowledge, truth, union, peace and love? And thus usher in the great millennium, or sabbath of rest, so long expected and sought for by all good men?
B: We bear testimony that it is.
B: And the fulfilment of our words will establish their truth, to millions yet unborn: while there are those now living upon the earth who will live to see the consummation.
A: Come, then, to the help of the Lord; and let us have your aid and protection—and your willing and hearty co-operation, in this, the greatest of all revolutions.

#6: This chiasm provides a remarkable prophetic warning to the people and nations of the earth. Although the Saints were a tiny minority at the time of this proclamation, they would become “more and more an object of political and religious interest and excitement.” As a result, every individual and community would no longer have the option of standing “as idle and disinterested spectators,” but would reach a point where they would either choose to “aid and bless the people of God” or “fight against God, and seek to destroy his people.”

A: There is also another consideration of vast importance to all the rulers and people of the world, in regard to this matter. It is this: As this work progresses in its onward course, and becomes more and more an object of political and religious interest and excitement, no king, ruler, or subject, no community or individual, will stand neutral. All will at length be influenced by one spirit or the other; and will take sides either for or against the kingdom of God, and the fulfilment of the prophets, in the great restoration and return of his long dispersed covenant people.
B: Some will act the part of the venerable Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses; or the noble Cyrus; and will aid and bless the people of God; or like Ruth, the Moabitess, will forsake their people and their kindred and country, and will say to the Saints, or to Israel: “This people shall be my people, and their God my God.”
B: While others will walk in the footsteps of a Pharaoh, or a Balak, and will harden their hearts, and fight against God, and seek to destroy his people. These will commune with priests and prophets who love the wages of unrighteousness; and who, like Balaam, will seek to curse, or to find enchantments against Israel.
A: You cannot therefore stand as idle and disinterested spectators of the scenes and events which are calculated in their very nature to reduce all nations and creeds to one political and religious standard, and thus put an end to Babel forms and names, and to strife and war. You will, therefore, either be led by the good Spirit to cast in your lot, and to take a lively interest with the Saints of the Most High, and the covenant people of the Lord, or on the other hand, you will become their inveterate enemy, and oppose them by every means in your power.

#7: In this chiasm, the remarkable prophecy continues with a vivid description of armed conflict and a dramatic change in “the whole order of things in Europe and Asia, in regard to political and religious organization, and government.” The “great division” of the people of the world will eventually lead “the nations of the old world” to besiege and attack Jerusalem. In the midst of battle, the Messiah (Christ) will appear as the “defender of the Jews” and “complete their victory.” As a result of this “signal victory,” Jerusalem will become the “capital of the old world,” where the nations of the eastern hemisphere will be required to annually keep the Feast of Tabernacles.

A: To such an extreme will this great division finally extend, that the nations of the old world will combine to oppose these things by military force. They will send a great army to Palestine, against the Jews; and they will besiege their city, and will reduce the inhabitants of Jerusalem to the greatest extreme of distress and misery.
B: Then will commence a struggle in which the fate of nations and empires will be suspended on a single battle.
C: In this battle the governors and people of Judah distinguish themselves for their bravery and warlike achievements. The weak among them will be like David, and the strong among them will be like God: or like the angel of the Lord.
D: In that day the Lord will pour upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem the spirit of grace and supplication, and they shall look upon the Messiah whom they have pierced.
D: For lo he will descend from heaven, as the defender of the Jews: and to complete their victory. His feet will stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives, which shall cleave in sunder at his presence, and remove one half to the north, and the other to the south; thus forming a great valley where the mountain now stands.
C: The earth will quake around him, while storm and tempest, hail and plague, are mingled with the clash of arms, the roar of artillery, the shouts of victory, and the groans of the wounded and dying. In that day all who are in the siege, both against Judea and against Jerusalem, shall be cut in pieces; though all the people of the earth should be gathered together against it.
B: This signal victory on the part of the Jews, so unlooked for by the nations, and attended with the personal advent of Messiah, and the accompanying events, will change the whole order of things in Europe and Asia, in regard to political and religious organization, and government. The Jews as a nation become holy from that day forward; and their city and sanctuary becomes holy. There also the Messiah establishes his throne, and seat of government. Jerusalem then becomes the seat of empire, and the great centre and capital of the old world.
A: All the families of the land shall then go up to Jerusalem once a year, to worship the King, the Lord of Hosts, and to keep the feast of Tabernacles. Those who refuse to go up, shall have no rain, but shall be smitten with dearth and famine. And if the family of Egypt go not up (as it never rains there) they shall be smitten with the plague. And thus all things shall be fulfilled according to the words of the holy prophets of old, and the word of the Lord which is now revealed, to confirm and fulfil them.

#8: This chiasm provides more detail about the dramatic power shift described in the previous chiasm.

A: In short the kings, rulers, priests and people of Europe, and of the old world, shall know this once that there is a God in Israel, who, as in days of old, can utter his voice, and it shall be obeyed.
B: The courts of Rome, London, Paris, Constantinople, Petersburgh, and all others, will then have to yield the point, and do homage, and all pay tribute to one Great Centre, and to one mighty Sovereign,
B: Priests, bishops, and clergy, whether Catholic, Protestant, or Mahomedan, will then have to yield their pretended claims to the priesthood, together with titles, honors, creeds and names; and reverence and obey the true and royal priesthood of the order of Melchisedech, and of Aaron; restored to the rightful heirs, the nobility of Israel;
A: or, the dearth and famine will consume them, and the plague sweep them quickly down to the pit, as in the case of Korah, Dathan and Abiram, who pretended to the priesthood, and rebelled against God’s chosen priests and prophets, in the days of Moses.

#9: In this parallelism, the scene shifts in this remarkable prophecy “a scene of grandeur, greatness, and glory, far surpassing the scene just described,” which will take place in the western hemisphere. The indigenous peoples of North and South America will “stand forth in manly dignity” and claim their inheritance as descendants of Joseph. They will build the city of Zion, claim their temple blessings, enjoy a personal visit from the Lord, and become a “standard” for the nations of the western hemisphere.

A: While these great events are rolling on the wheels of time, and being fulfilled in the old world, the Western Continent will present a scene of grandeur, greatness, and glory, far surpassing the scene just described. The Lord will make her that halted a remnant; and gather her that was driven out and afflicted; and make her who was cast afar off, a strong nation; and will reign over them in Mount Zion from that time forth and for ever (sic). Or, in other words, He will assemble the Natives, the remnants of Joseph in America; and make of them a great, and strong, and powerful nation: and he will civilize and enlighten them, and will establish a holy city, and temple, and seat of government among them, which shall be called Zion.
B: And there shall be his tabernacle, his sanctuary, his throne, and seat of government for the whole continent of North and South America for ever. In short, it will be to the western hemisphere what Jerusalem will be to the eastern.
C: And there the Messiah will visit them in person; and the old Saints, who will then have been raised from the dead, will be with him. And he will establish his kingdom and laws over all the land.
D: To this city, and to its several branches or stakes, shall the Gentiles seek, as to a standard
E: of light and knowledge. Yea, the nations, and their kings and nobles, shall say. Come, and let us go up to the Mount Zion, and to the temple of the Lord; where his holy priesthood stand to minister continually before the Lord; and where we may be instructed more fully, and receive the ordinances of remission, and of sanctification, and redemption; and thus be adopted into the family of Israel, and identified in the same covenants of promise.
A: The despised and degraded son of the forest, who has wandered in dejection and sorrow, and suffered reproach, shall then drop his disguise, and stand forth in manly dignity, and exclaim to the Gentiles who have envied and sold him: “I am Joseph: does my father yet live?” Or, in other words: I am a descendant of that Joseph who was sold into Egypt. You have hated me, and sold me, and thought I was dead. But lo! I live, and am heir to the inheritance, titles, honors, priesthood, sceptre, crown, throne, and eternal life and dignity of my fathers, who live for evermore.
B: He shall then be ordained, washed, anointed with holy oil, and arrayed in fine linen, even in the glorious and beautiful garments and royal robes of the high priesthood, which is after the order of the Son of God; and shall enter into the congregation of the Lord, even into the Holy of Holies, there to be crowned with authority and power which shall never end. The Spirit of the Lord shall then descend upon him, like the dew upon the mountains of Hermon, and like refreshing showers of rain upon the flowers of Paradise. His heart shall expand with knowledge, wide as eternity; and his mind shall comprehend the vast creations of his God, and His eternal purpose of redemption, glory, and exaltation, which was devised in heaven before the worlds were organized; but made manifest in these last days, for the fulness of the Gentiles, and for the exaltation of Israel.
C: He shall also behold his Redeemer, and be filled with his presence, while the cloud of his glory shall be seen in his temple.
D: The city of Zion, with its sanctuary and priesthood, and the glorious fulness of the gospel, will constitute a standard which will put an end to jarring creeds and political wranglings, by uniting the republics, states, provinces, territories, nations, tribes, kindred, tongues, people, and sects of North and South America in one great and common bond of brotherhood.
E: While truth and knowledge shall make them free, and love cement their union. The Lord also shall be their king and their lawgiver; while wars shall cease, and peace prevail for a thousand years. Thus shall American rulers, statesmen, citizens, and savages know, “this once,” that there is a God in Israel, who can utter his voice, and it shall be fulfilled.

#10: The following structure consists of two chiasms sandwiched between two corresponding introductory elements (labeled I and II). The two chiasms describe the work of the Lord that “must roll on in fulfillment” and two major contributions the people of the Americas can make to the work of the latter days. In the first chiasm, they are instructed to “protect the Saints” by extending “the broad banner of the Constitution and laws over” them, including punishing their “offenders” and helping them reclaim “the millions they have lost.” In the second chiasm, the people of the Americas are encouraged to continue their efforts to “civilize” the indigenous peoples and to educate them about “their Israelitish origin.”

I: Americans! This mighty and strange work has been commenced in your midst, and must roll on in fulfillment.

A: You are now invited, and earnestly intreated, to investigate it thoroughly, and to aid and
participate in its accomplishment.
B: You ask, What can be done?
C: We answer: Protect the Saints; give them their rights; extend the broad banner of the Constitution and laws over their homes, cities, fire-sides, wives, and children;
D: that they may CEASE to be BUTCHERED, MARTYRED, ROBBED, PLUNDERED, AND DRIVEN, and may peaceably proceed in the work assigned them by their God.
D: Execute the Law upon the offenders, and thus rid your garments of INNOCENT BLOOD.
C: Pass acts, also, to indemnify them in the millions they have lost, by your cruel and criminal neglect.
B: Contribute liberally of your substance
A: for their aid, and for the fulfillment of their mission.

A: Let the Government of the United States also continue to gather together, and to colonize the tribes and remnants of Israel (the Indians), and also to feed, clothe, succor, and protect them, and endeavor to civilize and unite;
B: and also to bring them to the knowledge of their Israelitish origin, and of the fulness of the gospel which was revealed to, and written by, their forefathers on this land;
C: the record of which has now come to light.
C: It is these records,
B: together with the other scriptures, and the priesthood and authority now conferred upon the Saints,
A: that will effect their final conversion and salvation; while the creeds of man, and the powerless forms and dogmas of sectarianism will still remain powerless and inefficient.

II: The Lord has spoken, and who can disannul it? He has uttered his voice, and who can gainsay it? He has stretched out his arm, and who can turn it back?

#11: This parallelism contrasts the blessings and cursings that will follow either supporting or rejecting the Latter-day Saints. Ultimately, they will either “be prepared to receive their king, Messiah, and to dwell for ever under his peaceful government in this happy country,” or they will lose their inheritance when the Messiah comes and executes “judgement for the Saints, and give[s] them the dominion.”

A: If the rulers and people will now inform themselves on these momentous subjects, and fulfill the duties we have just pointed out to them,
B: they will then be entitled to a continuation of the great national blessings and favors they have heretofore enjoyed; yea, and to more abundant favors from His bountiful hand, who first raised them to national greatness. They will in that case be prospered and enlarged, and spread their dominions wide and more wide over this vast country, till not only Texas and Oregon, but the whole vast dominion from sea to sea, will be joined with them, and come under their protection as one great, powerful and peaceful empire of Liberty and Union. Millions of people would also come from all nations, their silver and their gold with them, and would take protection under our banner, till in less than half a century from the present time we would have upwards of a hundred millions of population, all united and free, while civilization, arts, cultivation and improvement would extend to the most wild regions of our continent, making our “wilderness like Eden and our deserts like the garden of the Lord.” Or, if they will go still further, and obey the fulness of the gospel, they would then be entitled, not only to temporal blessings, but to the gifts of the Holy Spirit,
C: and thus be prepared to receive their king, Messiah, and to dwell for ever under his peaceful government in this happy country.
A: But, so long as they remain indifferent and ignorant on these subjects, and so long as they continue to breathe out slanders, lies, hatred and murder against the Saints and against the remnants of Israel, and to speak evil of and oppose the things which they understand not,
B: so long the blood of the Saints and of the martyrs of Jesus must continue to flow, and souls to cry from under the altar for vengeance on a guilty land,
C: till the great Messiah shall execute judgment for the Saints, and give them the dominion.

#12: This chiasm boldly declares that the “faith, hope or knowledge” possessed by the Saints gives them power to endure “death and war in their most horrid forms.”

A: It is in vain to suppose that the sword, the musket, the thunder of cannon, or the grating and rattle of chains, bolts and bars, will take away the faith, hope or knowledge of a Latter-day Saint.
B: They know some facts—
B: and these will continue to be known facts
A: when death and war in their most horrid forms are raging around them. They cannot shut their eyes upon these facts to please either governors, rulers, or the raging multitude.

#13: This chiasm acknowledges the danger of declaring the words of this proclamation, that they may be considered “treason[ous]” by some. The apostles boldly accept this fate by restating and summarizing much of what has previously been presented in this proclamation.

A: We would now make a solemn appeal to our rulers and other fellow-citizens, whether it is treason to know? or even to publish what we know? If it is, then strike the murderous blow, but listen to what we say.
B: We say, then, in life or in death, in bonds or free, that the great God has spoken in this age.—And we know it.
C: He has given us the Holy Priesthood and Apostleship, and the keys of the kingdom of God, to bring about the restoration of all things as promised by the holy prophets of old.—And we know it.
D: He has revealed the origin and the Records of the aboriginal tribes of America, and their future destiny.—And we know it. He has revealed the fulness of the gospel, with its gifts, blessings, and ordinances.—And we know it. He has commanded us to bear witness of it, first to the Gentiles and then to the remnants of Israel and the Jews.—And we know it.
E: He has commanded us to gather together his Saints on this Continent, and build up holy cities and sanctuaries.—And we know it.
F: He has said, that the Gentiles should come into the same gospel and covenant; and be numbered with the house of Israel and be a blessed people upon this good land for ever,
G: if they would repent and embrace it.—And we know it.
G: He has also said that, if they do not repent, and come to the knowledge of the truth,
F: and cease to fight against Zion, and also put away all murder, lying, pride, priestcraft, whoredom, and secret abomination, they shall soon perish from the earth, and be cast down to hell.—And we know it.
E: He has said, that the time is at hand for the Jews to be gathered to Jerusalem.—And we know it.
D: He has said, that the Ten Tribes of Israel should also be revealed in the North country, together with their oracles and records, preparatory to their return, and to their union with Judah, no more to be separated.—And we know it. He has said, that when these preparations were made, both in this country and in Jerusalem and the gospel in all its fulness preached to all nations for a witness and testimony,
C: He will come, and all the Saints with him, to reign on the earth one thousand years.—And we know it.
B: He has said that he will not come in his glory and destroy the wicked, till these warnings were given and these preparations were made for his reception.—And we know it.
A: Now, fellow-citizens, if this knowledge, or the publishing of it is treason or crime we refuse not to die. But be ye sure of this,

#14: This concluding chiasm continues the apostles’ bold acceptance of death for the testimony contained in this proclamation. They renew their invitation to the people of the earth to assist the Saints with their “silver and gold” and testify of the great blessings that will accompany “the great restoration of all things.”

A: that whether we live or die the words of the testimony of this proclamation which we now send unto you, shall all be fulfilled. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but not one jot or tittle of his revealed word shall fail to be fulfilled. Therefore, again we say to all people, Repent, and be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, for remission of sins; and you shall receive the Holy Spirit, and shall know the truth, and be numbered with the house of Israel.
B: And we once more invite all the kings, presidents, governors, rulers, judges, and people of the earth, to aid us, the Latter-day Saints; and also, the Jews, and all the remnants of Israel, by your influence and protection, and by your silver and gold, that we may build the cities of Zion and Jerusalem, and the temples and sanctuaries of our God; and may accomplish the great restoration of all things, and bring in the latter-day glory.
C: That knowledge, truth, light, love, peace, union, honor, glory, and power, may fill the earth with eternal life and joy.
C: That death, bondage, oppression, wars, mourning, sorrow, and pain, may be done away for ever, and all tears be wiped from every eye.
B: In fulfillment of the work assigned them, let the Saints throughout the world, and all others who feel an interest in the work of God, forward their gifts, tithes, and offerings, for the building of the temple of the Lord, which is now in progress in the city of Nauvoo, in the State of Illinois. Let them also come with their gold and silver, and goods, and workmen, to establish
manufactories and business of all kinds, for the building up of the city; and for the employmentand support of the poor, and thus strengthen the hands of those who have borne the burden and heat of the day, and who have made great sacrifices in laying the foundation of the kingdom of God, and moving on the work thus far.
A: We also make a solemn and an earnest request of all Editors of newspapers, both in this country and other countries to publish this proclamation. It certainly contains news, such as is not met with at all times, and in every place, and cannot fail to interest the reading public, especially those who have prayed every day of their lives for the Lord’s kingdom to to come; and for his will to be done on the earth, as it is done in heaven.


Chiasmus in the 1845 Proclamation of the Twelve Apostles strengthens an already bold statement of the divinely commissioned mission of the Latter-day Saints. It makes clear what is expected of the kings of the earth, leaving them accountable and “without excuse.” It provides a clear definition of the prophesied kingdom of God that has been established in our time. It stresses the importance and blessings associated with the ordinances of the Gospel—in particular, the gift of the Holy Ghost. Chiasmus also provides greater detail to the remarkable prophecy concerning the social and political divisions of the people leading to the battle of Armageddon in the eastern hemisphere and the building up of Zion on the western hemisphere. Most importantly, perhaps, it strengthens the faith of the Latter-day Saints by illuminating their understanding of the events of the latter days and the role the Lord expects them to play.


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